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Response on land

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Widespread use of booms

The US authorities made widespread use of booms to protect the shoreline. Over 3,000 km of containment and sorbent booms were deployed during response. A portion of these booms was regularly destroyed by high winds. To provide better resistance to the winds and currents rife in certain narrows between the islands of Louisiana, and to prevent the pollutant from penetrating highly sensitive marshlands, an original and impressive system was set up. Known as the rigid pipe boom, it consisted of assembling several kilometres of metal pipes equipped with skirts and positioning them between a double row of metal stakes driven into the mud, using a crane.

Quantity of booms (in km)
(Source: Deepwater Horizon Response)
(click to enlarge)

Shoreline erosion prevention measures

In order to prevent shoreline erosion, geotextile socks filled with a mixture of sand and cement were deployed, as well as Tiger Booms, long double-chambered booms, similar in appearance to shore-sealing booms, but filled with sand. These two systems positioned parallel along the beaches were doubled up with sand bunds.

Clean-up techniques

Manual and mechanical recovery using sand screeners was completed in places with sand washing machines. This technique consisted of mixing sand with hot water (without additives) to cause the oil to rise to the surface, before centrifuging the mixture to recover the “spun” sand.

Transporting booms. Source: Cedre. Transporting booms. © Cedre.

Dispositif anti érosion et barrages absorbants. © Cedre. Erosion prevention and sorbent booms. © Cedre.

Deepwater Horizon. Deploying booms. Source: Cedre.
Deploying booms. © Cedre.

An original system: creation of islands to trap the pollutant

On 27 May, response command authorised the creation of 6 temporary artificial islands, 72 km long, off Louisiana. These islands were built from sand recovered offshore and prevented the oil from reaching the coast. The cost of this operation was 360 million dollars, fully financed by BP.

Personnel mobilised

Dozens of Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Teams (SCAT) methodically inspected the shoreline in detail: all information acquired was sent to the relevant command centres, enabling each State to assess the situation and define response techniques and priorities.

Crowds of manual collectors paced the beaches every day to recover clusters of pollutant: most often patches and tarballs, sometimes even micro tarballs. Due to the extreme heat, tents were put up every 500 metres along the beaches of Louisiana where responders could take regular breaks.

Number of personnel mobilised
(Source: Deepwater Horizon Response)
(click to enlarge)

Responder training

Training has been organised by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for personnel employed by BP for shoreline clean-up and response at sea. OSHA comes under the US Department of Labor and its mission is to ensure safe and healthy working conditions. The agency has distributed thousands of booklets on Safety and Health Awareness for Oil Spill Cleanup Workers and fact sheets for all those (including volunteers) involved in shoreline clean-up and response at sea. These documents were jointly produced by OSHA and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), one of the institutes which make up the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).
The documents have been printed in the 3 languages used in the US states of the Gulf of Mexico: English, Spanish and Vietnamese.

Last update: 10/11/10

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